American Diplomacy and the Israeli War of Independence
The United States remains dedicated to building a strategic partnership with Iraq and the Iraqi people.
The December departure of U. Iraq is now a key partner for the United States in the region as well as a voice of moderation and democracy in the Middle East. The United States maintains vigorous and broad engagement with Iraq on a variety of issues in accordance with the U. The SFA covers a range of issues including political relations and Diplomacy The art and practice of conducting negotiations and maintaining relations between nations; skill in handling affairs without arousing hostility.
The relationship between two nations is referred to as a bilateral relationship. A State Department official agreed, but the Secretary of State and the President balked at the deal, which caused internal political problems for the Egyptian leaders. Dulles' brother Allen was made director of the CIA. The Dulles brothers provided military advisors and equipment to the Egyptian army. Through clandestine contacts, both the State Department and the CIA gave Egyptian leaders, especially Nasser, important intelligence training and assistance in moderating potential internal political rivals and in conducting propaganda campaigns.
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In , Nasser edged out Naguid and ascended to sole leadership of the military government. During the tumult surrounding this, Nasser was able to disband the main faction of his opposition, the Moslem Brotherhood, after an assassination attempt during one of his speeches, in which the would-be assassin fired seven shots at him, but missed. Public sympathy for Nasser surged, allowing him to quash his opposition. Nasser's chief of security much later admitted that the CIA had given Nasser a bulletproof vest, which he was wearing during his speech, raising the issue of whether the assassination attempt was a setup, designed to benefit Nasser.
Egypt looked for military equipment and aid. During this period, both State and the CIA provided it, sometimes clandestinely, hoping for a formal military alliance with Egypt, and for Egypt to take the lead in reaching a peace settlement with Israel. Egypt, however, extracted as much military and economic assistance from the U.
It was Nasser's intention to adopt a policy of "neutralism" between West and East that is, between the U.
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The Soviets hoped to counter Western influence in these countries by promoting anti-colonial sentiment and supporting socialist reform there. The strategy was quite successful, at least for a time. The initial plan also included a Mideast alliance to bridge the gap between the two, but when the U. Nasser's idea was to form a regional military alliance within the Arab League, with him as leader. The souring of relations between Nasser and the West resulted in a turning point in in which Nasser asked for, and received, large-scale military equipment sales from the Soviet Union, and distanced his country and himself from the United States.
, Volume XIX, Arab-Israeli Crisis and War, | American Diplomacy Est
Indeed, he adopted socialist reforms and heavily promoted "pan-Arab nationalism," as well as "neutralism" and "noncooperation with the West. Despite that, the U. In order to avoid such an outcome, the U.
In response, Nasser stepped up anti-American rhetoric in the region and, in return from the Soviets for help in setting up covert intelligence operations in the region designed to undermine the Arab monarchies of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Libya, and Iraq, Nasser agreed to accept Soviet military assistance.
The denouement occurred over the plans to construct the Aswan High Dam, which the U. Secretary of State Dulles, with Eisenhower's agreement, finally decided to extract the U. In , Dulles let it be known to Nasser that the U. This, Dulles believed correctly, Nasser would be highly reluctant to do. Nasser responded by opening diplomatic relations with China. Nasser also had another option that the U. In response, three months later, Britain, France the two foreign shareholders in the canal , and Israel attacked Egypt, resulting in a quick and decisive military defeat for Egypt.
All of this they did without consulting the U. Eisenhower and Dulles were appalled at the attack. They believed with some good evidence that it would result in a military response from the Soviet Union, risking a much larger war, and, in any event, would throw the weight of public opinion throughout the Arab Middle East entirely against the West and into the Soviet camp.
In addition, the U. The British relented, a cease-fire was called, and the occupying forces were evacuated. Meanwhile, another dimension was added to the U. It stemmed from U. Zionist leaders like Ben Gurion worked actively during the war to win over the support of both the American administration and the American Jewish community.
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In Washington demanded the immediate entry into Palestine of , survivors of the Holocaust after the Europeans and the United States themselves refused to admit them on their territories. In they were the first to recognize the newly created state of Israel. To the Arabs the significance of the U. By backing the creation of the Jewish state, President Truman was largely motivated by domestic political concerns. As one American official of the State Department formulated it, Truman wanted to solve the problem of Jewish refugees by another refugee problem, that of the Arab Palestinians.
The implications for U. Henceforth the security and survival of Israel became one of the pillars of U. During the fifties, with the radicalization of Arab nationalism Nasserism and Baathism , the objective of American policy in the region consisted in enabling Israel to maintain a strategic edge over its Arab neighbors through massive financial and military assistance. The American preoccupation with the growth of Soviet influence in the region became a consistent.
The Eisenhower doctrine announced in committed the U. In fact what this doctrine did was to allow the U. This happened in Jordan in and in Lebanon the following year, , when the U. Such a policy angered the Arab peoples and generated anti-American resentment among Muslims in general. The favorable image the Arabs had of the U. The turning point came with the Arab-Israeli war of which resulted in Israeli occupation of more Arab land, at the expense of the Palestinians, but also at the expense of countries such as Egypt and Syria.
Chadwick on Brecher, 'American Diplomacy and the Israeli War of Independence'
The adoption of dozens of resolutions by the UN calling for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Arab occupied territories did not prevent Israel from pursuing its policy of annexation and expropriation of Palestinian lands. Despite the illegal character of these settlements under the Fourth Geneva Convention of , the U.
From the perspective of Arab countries, U. What angers the Arabs most is the perception they have of a double-standard U. In fact the U. This was particularly clear in the case of Iraq after it invaded Kuwait in The double-standard policy can also be seen in the way Washington has dealt with the issue of Weapons of Mass Destruction in the region. While the U.
This policy has largely contributed to the growth of anti-American sentiment in the region and fueled Islamic radical groups. The image of the Arab in the American mind is older than the history of American-Arab relations. In fact, it is part of a Western view which concerns not only the Arabs but the Muslims in general.
The perception of Muslims as a threat is not something born in the 20th or 21st century. Islam, according to the British historian Albert Hourani, was always a problem for the West from the very beginning.
Centuries of interaction have left a bitter legacy between the worlds of Islam and the Christian West, deriving largely from the fact that both civilizations claim a universal message and mission and share much of the Judeo-Christian heritage.